about Restraints and Preventing Restraints
May 2009 GAO Report:
Seclusions & Restraints, Selected
Cases of Death and Abuse at Public and Private Schools and Treatment
Provides recent case studies of
students that have been harmed or died from restraints and an overview
of state and federal laws.
Parent Attorneys & Advocates (COPAA) report detailing incidents of aversive
interventions in schools.
Hartford Courant articles about physical restraint
National Restraint Death Database.
Provides a listing of deaths due
to physical restraints.
National Alliance for
the Mentally Ill (NAMI) compiled a
listing of deaths and injuries from restraints since the Courant
articles that ran in 1998.
Institutionalized Child Abuse website has information about the
risks of restraints including information and personal stories about
children who have died from restraints. It also includes a
petition to support federal legislation to ban the use of "face
Restraint Asphyxia Library. Provides information and resources about
asphyxia, a common cause of death during restraint.
Asperger’s Express provides information about the risks of
restraints and efforts to reduce or eliminate the use of restraints.
General Accounting Office Report:
Improper Restraint or Seclusion Use Places People at Risk.
Joint Commission on
Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO),
Preventing Restraint Deaths.
The United States
Dept. of Heath and Human Services,
A National Call to Action: Eliminating the Use of Seclusion and
Restraint Reducing Seclusion and Restraint Use -- What Works!
The U.S. Dept. of
Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service
has developed a new
training manual on seclusion and restraint free mental health services
A Roadmap to Seclusion and Restraint Free Services. The manual
includes a number of modules and PowerPoint presentations.
Child Welfare League of America (CWLA),
Best Practices in Behavior Support and Intervention Project
to reduce the use of restraint and seclusion in seven demonstration
sites across the country by improving the training and supervision of
staff who work directly with children.
Welfare League of America (CWLA),
various requirements and national standards for the use of
restraints in hospitals, residential treatment centers and other
State Standards and Definitions for Restraint and Seclusion.
publications about reducing or eliminating the use of restraint.
bibliography of studies
regarding the risks of restraints and
eliminating or reducing the use of restraints.
Working Towards a Restraint Free Environment.
Safe & Responsive
Effective Responses, Physical Restraints.
for the Study of
for the Elimination of Restraint.
Minimizing the Need for Physical Restraint and Seclusion in Residential
Youth Care Through Skill-Based Treatment Programming.
National Mental Health Consumers’
Self-Help Clearinghouse: provides information on restraint reduction
and other issues.
Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare:
information on state efforts to drastically reduce seclusion and
Pennsylvania Restraint Reduction Initiative. More info on
Pennsylvania's efforts to reduce restraint use.
Scott Kirkwood, Children’s Voice Sept/Oct.
2003, profiles various agencies and facilities that have successfully
reduced or eliminated the use of restraints.
A Review of How Six Children's Residential Mental Health Facilities are
Attempting to Reduce or Eliminate the Use of Seclusion and Restraint,
from the Ohio Legal Rights Services. Provides information about how
facilities successfully reduced or eliminated the use of restraint in
children’s residential treatment facilities.
Success Stories and
Ideas for Reducing Restraint/Seclusion is a compendium of
strategies jointly developed by The American Psychiatric Association (APA),
American Psychiatric Nurses Association (APNA), National Association of
Psychiatric Health Systems (NAPHS), and the American Hospital
Association (AHA) Section for Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Services
Alliance provides a variety of resources on restraints and
aversives including resources on reducing or eliminating their use.
In September 2005 the
Psychiatric Services Journal ran a series of articles about
restraints in psychiatric institutions and state hospitals. The articles
provide good information about the risks and costs of restraints and
reducing or eliminating restraints that can be applied in the school
setting as well. The articles include:
National Disability Rights Network and the
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Technical Assistance Center webcast on
Restraint and Seclusion of Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury
Restraint and Seclusion: A Risk Management Guide
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid
final regulations on patient rights in healthcare facilities. The
rights include new training and other requirements regarding the use of
restraints. The requirements apply to all participating hospitals
including short-term, psychiatric, rehabilitation, long-term, children's
and alcohol/drug treatment facilities.
Read the American Association of People with Disabilities explanation
of the requirements in the new regulations.